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November 8, 2002     Cape Gazette
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November 8, 2002

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84 - CAPE GAZE'FI'E, Friday, Nov. 8 - Nov. 14, 2002 Harvest evaluations help determine 2003 hybrids As growers progress through the harvest season, there are many harvest evaluation factors that can help them in making sound deci- sion for the future. "It difficult to evaluate the suc- cess of a harvest based on how things went on a particular farm," said Dale Hicks, University of Minnesota agronomy professor. "Growers often talk of how the corn stands or how it combines, but the bottom line is yield. Grow- ers need to choose a hybrid with good standability, good yield and good harvestable yield." Early grain corn harvest have been beneficial in selected areas this year, as many field experi- enced extremely hot and dry weather before and during polli- nation. "Harvesting grain corn early this year was key to ensuring the best possible yields," said Steve Hyronimus., district agronomist Mycogen Seeds. "The hot and dry weather caused poor pollination at the base of the ear resulting slippage and loss of yield," said Hyronimus. "There was also quite a bit of Furisiam stalk rot showing after a late summer stretch of hot weath- er." Many factors can affect late sea- son stalk strength including drought stress, light frosts and stalk rot diseases. Drought stress prevents the stalks from develop- ing to their full potential. When light, early frosts occur, some of the plant leaves die. And because kernel development is not at physiological maturity in most cases, the plant will cannibalize the stalk to complete kernel devel- opment. Stalk rot diseases discolor the interior of the stalk as they destroy healthy tissue. In each of these cases, corn stalks have the poten- tial to deteriorate quickly and cause premature lodging. "Stalk diseases such as Furisi- am, Anthracnose and Gibberella, limit yield and most importantly, are unpredictable," Hyronimus' said. According to Hicks, the infor- mation growers gain from a hy- brid the produce should only be a part of the equation when making planting decisions for next year. Hicks recommends that growers base their planting decisions on results from county plots, univer- sity plots and/or yield plot data from plant breeders such as Mycogen Seeds, in order to judge the overall success of a hybrid. "Choosing hybrids based on sound genetics, and not necessari- ly on how well they performed in your field this past year is the best way to ensure more consistent re suits," Hicks said. ',The wise choice is to plant a combination of early and late flowering hybrids that fits the area. "This helps to spread the polli- nation window over a wider time frame," Hyronimus said. He suggests growers look at multiple years of data if they are in an area with extreme stress. For more information on Myco- gen Seeds, go to the website Small business disaster loans available following disaster designation The U.S. Small Business Ad- ministration (SBA) announced re- cently that federal disaster loans are available to small, nonfarm, agriculture dependent businesses located in various counties in Delaware and New Jersey. "SBA's disaster declaration was issued as a result of a similar ac- tion taken by the Secretary of Agriculture to help farmers in these states recover from losses caused by drought that occurred from Jan. I and is continuing," said SBA Disaster Area director William Leggiero Jr. Under this declaration, SBA's Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) program is available to small agriculture-dependent busi- ness and small agricultural coop- eratives that suffered economic Journal Continued from page 83 keep vegetables and fruits from spoiling. The most famous might be the Russet Potato the rough skinned long potato that is famous for baking as well as the potato of choice for French fries. This high yielding spreading potato will keep for months in storage. Russetted fruits are often seen as less than perfect so have fallen out of favor. Still, total fruit russetting is a desirable characteristic of the pear "Beurre Bose." And some of the most famous apples were russetted such as "Adam's Pearmain" also known as "Norfolk Pippin." Adam's Pearmain is a conical shaped, medium-sized, apple with dull crimson-red skin covered with a fine gray-brown russet coat. Its creamy white flesh is crisp, tender and fn'rn with a dry, nutty flavor. It ripens in mid to late October and as expected for a russet is a fine keeper. The aptly named Golden Russet originated in Burlington County, N. J. in the 1700s. Golden Russet is excellent not only for fresh eat- ing but is famous for making hard cider. Most apples were raised in America not for eating, but to be injury as a direct result of the se- vere weather's effect on agricul- tural producers. For example, a business that sells goods/services to agricultural producers may be unable to pay bills and/or meet ex- penses because of the reduced purchasing power of the farmers and ranchers. Eligible small businesses may qualify for loans up to $1.5 mil- lion. These loans are available at a 4 percent interest rate with loan terms up to 30 years. SBA determines eligibility for the program based on the size and type of business and its financial resources. Under this disaster declaration, SBA does not provide loans to agricultural producers and cannot made into cider and the Golden Russet, because of its high sugar content, could produce a hard cider with up to 7 percent alcohol content. Golden Russet is a medium sized, round or sometimes oblong shaped apple whose faint yellow skin is covered with rough golden russetting. It will ripen with firm, crisp yellow flesh from September to November. The king of rnssetted apples is the aptly named Roxbury Russet. R is perhaps the most popular rus- set apple grown. Roxbury Russet originated in Roxbury, Mass. with the arrival of the Pilgrims, making it the oldest American apple breed. The fruit is medium to large with dull greenish-yellow skin that is covered with coarse, brownish-yellow russetting. Rox- bury Russets ripen from Septem- ber to October and like most rus- sets, are very good keepers. In addition to potatoes, apples and pears, there are russetted squash and pumpkins. Good keepers all, russetted fruit in early America as now can keep you in the pink. Paul Barbano writes about gar- dening and farming from his home_ in Rehoboth Beach. Address questions or comments to him c/o the Cape Gazette. provide loans to nonagricultural dependent businesses. However, small businesses may contact their local SBA District office for information and other possible as- sistance. Farmers and ranchers should contact the Farm Services Agency for information regarding addi- tional loan programs. The declaration designates the entire state of Delaware as the pri- mary disaster area. "SBA is committed to helping small businesses overcome eco- nomic injuries and we offer the fi- nancial resources to accomplish this," Leggiero added. For more information and to ob- tain a loan application, interested. businesses should contact the SBA Disaster Area 1 office at 800-659-2955 or 877-8339 for the hearing impaired. 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